Additionally, another exception occurred while executing the custom error page for the first exception. Chloroquine retinopathy, is a form of toxic retinopathy (damage of the retina) caused by the drugs chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, which are sometimes used in the treatment of autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Plaquenil and doxycycline Can a patient on plaquenil get the varicella vaccine Plaquenil was derived from Ic hydroxychloroquine Doses ≥ 5 mg/kg/day real weight of hydroxychloroquine 2.3 mg/kg/day of chloroquine are associated with higher risk of toxicity. Doses lower than 5 mg/kg/day have low risk 1% for the first 5 years, and below 2% between 5-10 years of use. The longer you use the medication, the higher the risk of toxicity. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine both belong to the quinolone family and share similar clinical indications and side effects, including retinal toxicity. Chloroquine-induced retinal toxicity was first described in 1959 and the retinal toxic effects of hydroxychloroquine were later described in 1967 3, 4. Chloroquine CQ is used to prevent and treat malaria and amebiasis, while hydroxychloroquine HCQ, a less toxic metabolite of chloroquine, is used to treat rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus SLE, rheumatoid arthritis RA, juvenile idiopathic arthritis JIA and Sjogren's syndrome. The risk of toxicity is low for individuals without complicating conditions during the first 5 years of treatment using less than 6.5 mg/kg/day of hydroxychloroquine or 3 mg/kg/day of chloroquine, and/or cumulative doses of less than 1000 gram and 460 gram (total dose), respectively. This eye toxicity limits long-term use of the drugs. Toxic dose of chloroquine Chloroquine Oral Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures., Hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil Toxicity and Recommendations. Chloroquine phosphate syrupHydroxychloroquine thrushAre people on plaquenil immunocompromisedAlternative to plaquenil for lupusIs plaquenil safe for breastfeeding A patient who survives the acute phase and is asymptomatic should be closely observed until all clinical features of toxicity resolve. Chloroquine Dosage and Administration. The dosage of Chloroquine phosphate is often expressed in terms of equivalent Chloroquine base. Chloroquine - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses. Chloroquine And Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity - StatPearls.. Hydroxchloroquine and Chloroquine Toxicity. Some advocate high-dose diazepam e.g. 2 mg/kg over 30 min, followed by 1-2 mg/kg/day for 2-4 days post-intubation in the patient with severe chloroquine toxicity. This stems from the French experience e.g. Riou et al, 1988 which suggests much improved mortality in patients receiving high dose diazepam. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine belong to the quinolone family. Although their therapeutic and toxic doses differ, they are related drugs with similar clinical indications for use and similar manifestations of retinal toxicity. Initially, chloroquine was given for malaria prophylaxis and treatment. Chloroquine is commonly used to study the role of endosomal acidification in cellular processes 2, 3, such as the signaling of intracellular TLRs. Moreover, Chloroquine inhibits autophagy as it raises the lysosomal pH, which leads to inhibition of both fusion of autophagosome with lysosome and lysosomal protein degradation 4.